(2008). (2008) present a different view that there is one overall GPT called “programmable computing networks” of which computers and the Internet are just separate implementations. In E. Helpman (Ed. Our definition includes multipurpose and single-purpose technologies, defining them according to their micro-technological characteristics, not their macro-economic effects. Helpman, E. (1998). Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48(2), 391–406. FCC 10-201, December 23, 2010. Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. David, P. A. Field-of-use restrictions in licensing agreements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Electricity and information technology (IT) probably are the two most important GPTs so far. Gramlich, E. M. (1994). Can Technology Improvements Cause Productivity Slowdowns? ", Boyan Jovanovic & Jeremy Greenwood, 1999. The power of VisiCalc. Does the 'New Economy' Measure up to the Great Inventions of the Past? The Electricity and IT eras are similar, but also differ in several important ways. ", Ricardo J. Caballero & Mohamad L. Hammour, 1991. Thus the steam engine and the electric motor may have … Helpman, E., & Trajtenberg, M. (1998). General purpose technologies ‘engines of growth’? To assess the question above, I decided to look at these technologies through the lenses of General Purpose Technologies (GPT). 117–139). Information asymmetries and the rights to exclude. Hogendorn, C. (2005). In M. Teubal, D. Foray, M. Justman, & E. Zuscovitch (Eds. Information technology is recognised as a “general purpose technology” (GPT). Odlyzko, A. (2004). Whole eras of technical progress and growth appear to be driven by a few ‘General Purpose Technologies’ (GPT's), such as the steam engine, the electric motor, and semiconductors. However, general purpose technologies are typically identified with the benefit of many years of hindsight. We refer to breakthroughs of this kind as 'general purpose technologies'. Ostrom, V., & Ostrom, E. (1977). ", Jeremy Greenwood & Boyan Jovanovic, 1999. ", Andrew Atkeson & Patrick J. Kehoe, 1993. Gets out tough stains, even the old ones! Increasingly there are field-of-use restrictions in licensing agreements that legally “tether” the technology to certain uses (Schuett 2012). © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This allows to link your profile to this item. the various RePEc services. Subscription will auto renew annually. Telecommunications Policy, 38(8–9), 662–673. ", Bartel, Ann P & Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1987. ", Boyan Jovanovic & Peter L. Rousseau, 2000. Applications Software Technology, LLC 1755 Park Street, Ste 100 Naperville, IL 60563 1.888.278.0002 www.astcorporation.com GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Authorized Information Technology Schedule Pricelist General purpose commercial information technology equipment, software and services SIN 132-50 – Training Courses ", Jeremy Greenwood & Ananth Seshadri & Mehmet Yorukoglu, 2002. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Infrastructure studies meet platform studies in the age of Google and Facebook. Stronger Protection or Technological Revolution: What is Behind the Recent Surge in Patenting? FCC. ", Jeremy Greenwood & Ananth Seshadri & Mehmet Yorukoglu, 2003. ", Michele Boldrin & David K. Levine, 2000. Electricity and information technology (IT) probably are the two most important GPTs … Productivity growth in the two GPT eras tended to be lower than it was in other periods, with productivity slowdowns taking place at the start of the two eras and the IT era slowdown stronger than that seen during Electrification.2. No 4148, NBER Working Papers from National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc Abstract: Whole eras of technical progress and economic growth appear to be driven by a few key technologies, which we call General Purpose Technologies (GPT's). Carlaw et al. Generalizing the Dynamo: Generic Features of General Purpose Technologies The diffusion of the dynamo has served as something of a paradigmatic example for economists working in the spirit of the new growth theory who have sought to generalize the idea of Ageneral purpose technologies@ with applications in diverse sectors of the economy. European Journal of Law and Economics Electrification was more broadly adopted, whereas IT seems to be technologically more "revolutionary." The previous literature has often referred to these disruptive technologies as General Purpose Technologies (GPTs). Platform rules: Multi-sided platforms as regulators. Research Policy, 38(4), 681–693. In spite of a large interest in General Purpose Technologies, it is unclear how much economies invest in their development and diffusion. Journal of Political Economy, 97(5), 1003–1026. (2010). Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy. ", Greenwood, Jeremy & Yorukoglu, Mehmet, 1997. [Boyan Jovanovic; Peter L Rousseau; National Bureau of Economic Research.] (2009). Carlaw, K. I., Lipsey, R. G., & Webb, R. (2008). This term seems to have been first used by Vint Cerf, David Reed, Stephen Crocker, Lauren Weinstein and Daniel Lynch in an Oct. 2009 letter to then FCC Chairman Julius Genochowski supporting network neutrality: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/NetPioneersLettertoChairmanGenachowskiOct09.pdf. A great leap forward: 1930s depression and US economic growth. It also exhibits tethering, meaning that different users must be physically or virtually connected for the infrastructure to function, and this makes control of its uses more feasible and more salient to policy. Justman, M., & Teubal, M. (1995). For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). As always, one can further subdivide, and say that computers are built on microprocessors, storage devices, and so forth. A GPT has the potential to affect the entire economic system and can lead to far-reaching changes in such social factors as working hours and constraints on family life. Economics Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, USA, Charles Widger School of Law, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA, You can also search for this author in Both improved as they were adopted, but measured by its relative price decline, IT has shown a much faster improvement than Electricity did.4. Infrastructure and regional economic growth. On the other hand, IT seems to be technologically more dynamic; the ongoing spread of IT and its continuing precipitous price decline are reasons for optimism about productivity growth in the 21st century. A general purpose technology or GPT is a term coined to describe a new method of producing and inventing that is important enough to have a protracted aggregate impact. FCC. Ict as a general-purpose technology: The productivity of ICT in the United States revisited. (2003). Apparently the first reference to this term is Ramsdell (1980) regarding the VisiCalc spreadsheet. Law and Contemporary Problems, 66(1/2), 111–145. Also, IT comprises a smaller fraction of the physical capital stock than electrified machinery did at its corresponding stage. Information distribution and the growth of economically valuable knowledge: A rationale for technological infrastructure policies. & Seshadri,A. Berlin: Springer. (2009). It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about. (1987). ", Michele Boldrin & David K. Levine, 1999. ), Technological infrastructure policy: An international perspective (pp. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The contributors to this volume are concerned with the type of drastic innovation called general purpose technologies (GPTs). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookseriesdescription.cws_home/BS_HE/description . http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/NetPioneersLettertoChairmanGenachowskiOct09.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10657-020-09642-w. Liao, H., Wang, B., Li, B., & Weyman-Jones, T. (2016). requiring Facebook to detect factually incorrect information). This dissertation considers the technology of computers in the second half of the 20th century and … A GPT has the potential to affect the entire economic system and can lead to far-reaching changes in such social factors as working hours and constraints on family life. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. The nature of technology: What it is and how it evolves. All-purpose, water-based spotter fortified with hydrogen peroxide. Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through Research Policy, 44(2), 357–369. Because the breadth and depth of knowledge is so vast, general education introduces students to a variety of perspectives while at the same time providing a framework of core ideas and knowledge. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:grochp:1-18. (2015). 191–208). (Forthcoming Article) - General purpose technologies (GPTs) like AI enable and require significant complementary investments. Frischmann, B. M., & Hogendorn, C. (2015). National Research Council. Price Premia to Name Brands: An Empirical Analysis, Learning by Doing and the Choice of Technology, Learning By Doing and the Choice of Technology, Comments on James Bessen's "Technology Adoption Costs and Productivity Growth: The 70's as a Technology Transition", From Shafts to Wires: Historical Perspective on Electrification. Industrialization and the big push. However, if the label “infrastructure” is seen as implying social or regulatory obligations (more like “public utility”), facility owners might resist it. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Both GPTs were widely adopted, but electricity's adoption was faster and more uniform over sectors.3. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ", Boldrin, Michele & Levine, David K., 2001. Bresnahan, T. F., & Trajtenberg, M. (1995). Political economy of infrastructure investment: A spatial approach. To look at these technologies through the various RePEc services the foundations of communications Policy in national.... Gpts ) Great leap forward: 1930s depression and us Economic growth Issues... And practice in ‘ stig systems ’ too late Perspectives, 29 ( 1 ), 249–275 be.: what IT is and how IT evolves knowledge: a review the United States revisited look at these through... Technologies in history that can be classified as true GPTs Phelps,.... 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