The case study protocol consists of case study questions. Study Design Once the researcher has selected a case that is either extreme, revelatory, or longitudinal, another choice for researchers is to consider whether to use an embedded versus holistic case design. Therefore, the inductive approach tries to build a theory (Bonoma, 1985). Therefore, realism cannot be stated as a pure deductive or inductive paradigm. The main difference between the holistic and embedded case studies is the focus of the case study. Internal validity tests the fundamental relationships between constructs. Yin (1994)’s approach toward case study is more positivist in nature. Yin (1994)’s case study approach is adopted for this research. In addition, performing a multiple case study needs time and resources. Malhotra and Birks (2007) state that broad coding groups(themes) can be established after the coding. However, Miles and Huberman (1994) also state that this is valid in the research areas which need theory building. What unit of analysis to use depends on the research questions/design •Example: case study of how was the life history of a person; Unit of analysis or case can be “the individual” Can be the same as “case” in holistic single and multiple case study •Example: case study of how a group of software immigrants Some causes are that the amount depends on the context, upon how much is known and how much new information the cases bring. The resulting two-by-two matrix leads to four … Coding is assigning labels a set of data (word, phrases, sentences or paragraphs) (Malhotra and Birks, 2007: Miles and Huberman, 1994). Therefore, realism does not have the disadvantage of positivism, which thoroughly depends on observable data, and critical theory and constructivism, which are incommensurable (Perry, 1998). After agreement, a judgemental sampling is conducted in order to identify the suppliers and the buyers of designated firm. Mrs P – A Clinical Case Study Mrs P is a 78 year old lady who currently lives alone in a centrally located council owned property in a town in the West Midlands. There are four possible case study designs. This case study research should be regarded as a pilot. This research is exploratory in nature. An embedded case study is a case study containing more than one sub-unit of analysis (Yin, 2003). Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Moreover, the data collection should be objective. I'm struggling to understand whether I should use a single embedded case study or (holistic?) Therefore, the research investigates the business relationships and interpersonal relationships within these business relationships around a designated case study firm. In this paper we performed an embedded multiple-case study, where the involved contexts are the OSS domains, Therefore, the data should be gathered into categories in order to access easily to the relevant data. Thirdly, the knowledge is created through conversations which are about descriptions, narrations of cognitive notions, daily events and experiences. Thirdly, researcher must protect the confidentiality of informants, their views and thoughts about specific subjects and persons. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Moreover, the knowledge is produced through language. Production of the knowledge continues through the research stages until the conclusion. multiple case study design. Therefore, the Kvale and Brinkmann (2009)’s ethical protocol  will be the guide during conducting this research. Therefore; two interviews are going to be conducted with the key buyer and key seller from the designated firm. This study explores the strategic thinking and strategic planning efforts in a department, college and university in the Southeastern United States. Yin (1994) suggests that researcher should treat any evidence fairly and should not concentrate on a particular aspect. Thus, nature of key business and interpersonal relationships around the designated firm is going to be examined. (1991, cited in Perry, 1998), the deductive and inductive approaches are founded from two different paradigms. A brief explanation and consent form is provided in the beginning of the interview. There are quite a few answers but I still don't know what the differences are between an embedded single case study and a holistic multiple case study. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. There are five types of questions: (1)who, (2)what, (3)where, (4)how and (5)why. The deductive approach tries to find causality in the research area with the well-known theory in order to clarify the phenomenon (Malhotra and Birks, 2007). Due to time and resources constraints, single-embedded case study design is chosen. Problem might arise when the entire nature of the case study shifts, during the course of the study. I will zero in on the ensuing works: Robert K. Yin's Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2002), Sharan B. Merriam's Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education(1998), and Robert E. Stake's The Art of Case Study Research (1995). Case and Unit Analysis Case studies are distinguished between single-case or multiple-case studies and holistic or embedded case studies . Holistic multiple case study design. 2. Three interviewers from supplier side and three interviewers from buyer side agree to take part in this research. Psychology In order to do so, four case study protocols are designed for the key buyer in designated firm, the key seller in designated firm, the key suppliers of designated firm and the key buyers of designated firm. 5. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! According to Malhotra and Birks (2007), one of the challenges of the exploratory researches is the lack of fix questions. Firstly, the digital audiotape recordings are gathered and transcribed. A holistic case study is shaped by a thoroughly qualitative approach that relies on narrative, phenomenological descriptions. Los Angeles, Calif., Sage Publications. According to Yin (1994), this criticism about the single case study has a basis; however, same problem is evident for other research methods such as single experiment. However, this problem may occur in any type of research method. In order to develop theories, there are two approaches (1) deductive approach and (2) inductive approach (Bonoma, 1985). … Therefore, the interviews are semi-structured and open-ended. Firstly, this research will investigate the business relationships between firms and interpersonal relationships between the participants. Therefore, the research is going to be conducted according to Kvale and Brinkmann (2009)’s ethical protocol. After the coding and memoing process, the data will be categorized and displayed with thematic categorization. The aim of the case study research is to improve and analytically generalise theories. Research design (Yin/COSMOS Corp., 1984): embedded (multiple units) analysis, holistic (single-unit) analysis, single case design, multiple case design. *You can also browse our support articles here >. laboradors, per garantir la nostra independència. Some of the world’s leading brands, such as Apple, Google, Samsung, and General Electric, have rapidly adopted the design thinking approach, and design thinking is being taught at leading universities around the world, including Stanford d.school, Harvard, and MIT. It is inappropriate to state that any type of research is free of limitations. However, it does not overlook the key literatures and theories. Researcher may ask questions that are not in the case study protocol. Fourthly, the knowledge is contextual because it created in an interpersonal context and sensitive to qualitative differences. Firstly, single case study methods can be implemented in order to test and to challenge a well-established theory in the critical cases. must follow a “replication” design . From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. According to Easterby-Smith et al. For two, case studies look at the history of a person, whereas single-subject design looks at the effects of treatment in one person and then compares it to others. In addition to this, single case study method can be conducted as a pilot study for the exploratory enquiries. The C ASE STUDY is a research method that focuses on understanding the dynamics of single settings. In business context, it is a must to conduct interviews with both parts of the dyad in a relationship marketing research (Ambler and Styles, 2000; Zhang, Cavusgil and Roath, 2003). Yin (1994) states three reasons to select the single case study designs. In Robert Yin's 2×2 table of types of case studies, the two axes are holistic (single unit of analysis) vs. embedded (multiple units of analysis) and single-case vs. multiple-case.As I wrote in the title, I'm having trouble understanding the difference between what makes a case study embedded and what makes it a multiple-case design. Secondly, as the researcher is the responsible person of this research study, the researcher must not use the information, which is gained from interviews, for his own interest other than completion of this research. The interviewers in partner firms are initially contacted by the ASP. Secondly, the source of the views and the informants are masked throughout the research. There are several strategies to conduct social science research. Due to the agreement with the participants and their firms, all information will be masked and all data (interviews’ transcripts and digital recordings of the interviews) will be deleted after the completion of the research. Mrs P was married in the 1950’s and her husband worked in an engineering factory until he had to retire due to ill health and he then unfortunately passed away in the mid 1990’s. The ASP is a SME. In the light of this, four case study protocols are constructed  (further detail will be provided in the research design section). Moreover, the inductive approach consists of three different approaches: Critical Theory, Constructivism and Realism (Guba and Lincoln, 1994, cited in Perry, 1998). However, questions remain about the exact nature of the value that multi-case studies add to governance research. The research interviews are the mediums where the knowledge is produced in the interaction of interviewer and interviewee. It has been suggested that there are four tests that measures the quality of a social science method: (1) construct validity, (2) internal validity, (3) external validity and (4) reliability (Yin, 1994). Yin (1994, pp.4) suggests that three conditions for determining the research strategy: (1) the type of the research question, (2) the extent of control an investigator has over actual behavioural events and (3) the degree of focus on contemporary as opposed to historical events. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Volem detectar el talent per posar-lo a disposició del Barça. Every stage of the research is critical in terms of ethical issues. Thirdly, realism approach has its roots from the key theories. B. Ethical issues are more important in in-depth interview because respondents are in more vulnerable position in interviews. These tactics are (1) using multiple sources of evidence, (2) the establishment of a chain of evidence and (3) the allowance of key informants to review the case study draft (Yin, 1994, pp.34). Case study approach consists of eight in-depth interviews with respondents. Therefore, the research gap is identified and questioned by the researcher that whether it is important to conduct this research. Every research design for case studies takes, somehow, the context into consideration. C.G. This is a problematic issue for the case study research because case studies depend on analytical generalization. Furthermore, it is very substantial to conduct interviews with key informants in the case study firms (Harris, O’Malley and Patterson, 2003). study, with a particular emphasis on tradeoffs related to using different single case study designs. This problem can be solved by conducting a multiple case study design. According to Yin (1994), generalisation of results from case studies, from either single or multiple designs, stems on theory rather than on populations. Secondly, realism has more objective approach with respect to critical thinking theory and constructivism. Firstly, case study research is criticized because there is a possibility of biased views to influence the direction of the research. For one, a case study focuses on one individual whereas single case design studies usually focus on a number of people. Case study typologies 7 6. Thirdly, single case study can be used to research a phenomenon that cannot be observable or inaccessible. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. THE LEARNING STATION: A HOLISTIC SINGLE-CASE STUDY OF AN AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAM TO ADDRESS THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP . In the light of this, this research, which is exploratory in nature, is not tested by internal validity. A research design is a plan for getting from your original question or hypothesis to obtaining workable results from your research, on which you can base defensible conclusions. This allows interviewer to respond interviewees and execute useful actions which may provide more insight in the research area (Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009). Yin (1994) identifies three points which are criticized by many researchers. Data collection is a part of the data analysis. Valors del Think Tank Partim d’unes premisses clau: 1. According to Yin (1994), there are five main research strategies: (1)experiments, (2)surveys, (3)archival analysis, (4)histories, (5)case studies. To begin with, this research should be beneficial to business-to-business relationship marketing. Secondly, developing case study database will increase reliability. A detailed review of case studies is given by Yin (1994). The final concern is that case studies are time consuming. Yin (1994) also states that these research strategies should not be assigned as exploratory, explanatory or descriptive purposes in nature. DESIGN Holistic Versus Embedded A crucial distinction must be made between holistic and embedded case studies (Yin, 1994, p. 41). Holistic vs Embedded case studies (Yin,2009)-Holistic: single unit of analysis-Embedded: multiple units (sub-units) of analysis Yin, R.K. (2009) Case study research: design and methods. The interviews are between 40 to 100 minutes long (interviews are planned to be approximately 60 minutes). Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? In this sense, internal validity is the main concern of experimental and explanatory researches. Talent. Reliability tests that the consistency of the research procedures which should be followed by the researchers. Their oral and written consents are taken. However, conducting a successful case study is hard to achieve. In other words, the deductive approach tests the theory by empirical evidence in the different settings (Perry, 1998). 4th ed. Data assembly is the next step. The researcher has responsibility to hide counterparts’ views, comments and thoughts from respective counterparts during semi-structured interviews. The resulting four types of designs for case studies are (Type 1) single-case (holistic) designs, (Type 2) single-case (embedded) designs, (Type 3) multiple-case (holistic) designs, and (Type 4) multiple-case (embedded) designs" (p.46). The goal of the study was to identify elements of strategic planning processes that meet the unique External validity tests the accuracy of generalization of findings. The key buyer and seller in the designated firm are identified and they consent to interview. New codes will be created according to the findings. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Yin (1994)’s approach to case study research tries to expel the main concerns and minimize biases. Yin (1994) suggests that there are alternative ways of conducting and analysing the case studies. According to Yin (1994), case study research is selected. The major benefit of using a multiple-case design was that multiple perspectives of the individuals In holistic design, researcher investigates the case in a global-holistic approach without separating the individuals unit. The research is going to focus on a single firm and their relationship with its buyers and suppliers. Single embedded design for case study is appropriate for this research due to resource and time constraints. A researcher might choose single-case study with single unit of analysis (holistic single-case design) over other method due to its convenience (only one unit of analysis is needed!). Theory has a very important and indispensible role in the marketing research. There are six sources of evidence for the case study research: (1) interviews, (2) documents, (3)achieve records, (4)direct observation, (5)direct observation and (6)physical artefacts (Yin, 1994). Moreover, transcripts and interpretations of interviews are sent to the participants for their approval. Second subunit investigates the relationships of the designated firm with its buyers as a supplier. Initially, the designated firm ASP is contacted and a brief explanation of the research is provided. However, as it is valid for coding, the new themes will be created according to the new coding. Finally, interviews have an unstructured or semi-structured approach. Good case study design involves providing empirical data for analysis and conclusion (Gummesson, 2007), but doing so in such a way that stands up to scrutiny. Same structure is going to be repeated with selling side of the designated firm with the key buyers in the buyer firms (See Figure X). Herriott and Firestone (1983, cited in Yin, 1994) state that the multiple case studies are more robust. Multiple case studies have certain advantages with respect to the single case studies. Therefore, the key decision makers are also the boundary spanners (This is also valid for the partner firms). 2. As realism is the research paradigm for this research, codes are taken from the relevant theories and the key literature. Afterwards, three interviews are going to be conducted with key sellers in three supplier firms which have relationships with the key buyer in designated firm. Miles and Huberman (1994) state the importance of a prior research which may offer understanding about the subject in the research area. However, new codes might be needed due to nature of the research. Moreover, he states that case study is not supposed to represent a sample. The nature of comparative case studies may be explored from the intersection of comparative and case study approaches. Similar to a case study, an embedded case study methodology provides a means of integrating quantitative and qualitative methods into a single research study (Scholz & Tietje, 2002; Yin 2003).However, the identification of sub-units allows for a more detailed level of inquiry. Surveys and experiments are based on statistical generalization. Treball sectorial per desenvolupar coneixement. In this sense, the interviews are semi-structured. Secondly, the knowledge that is created through the interaction of the interviewer and the interviewee is relational. Yin (1994) states that the interview is one of the most substantial sources of evidence for the case studies. Therefore, Yin (1994) suggests a semi-structured interview in which a research protocol is designed and followed by the researcher. This study attempts to answer when to write a single case study and when to write a multiple case study. Moreover, realism accepts the interaction between the researcher and the phenomena and the personal involvement of the researcher (Hirschman, 1986; Perry, 1998). Yin (1994) offers the case study protocol in order to ensure that the case study procedures are followed exactly. make a single case study or a multiple case study are presented. among the levels of design quality of the studied open source software domains? Sixthly, Narration is a powerful tool because it consists of the experiences, the social realities and the interviewee’s own life. Theory determines the variables, which are investigated and measured, and the source for interpreting findings. Yin (1994) offers three tactics to overcome the possible problems. The deductive approach is founded from positivist paradigm and the inductive approach is founded from phenomological paradigm. Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin’s bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. All work is written to order. different types of case studies. Looking for a flexible role? However, external validity is not sought for this case study because this research is a pilot case study. Therefore, this research targets the boundary spanners, who interact with each other during the normal flow of the business relationship. Interviews are conducted in the interviewers’ offices. VAT Registration No: 842417633. In addition to this, “what”, “who” and “where” questions are appropriate for survey or archival record analysis (Yin, 1994). As it has been stated, realism is a type of inductive approaches with some deductive features. However, it is a fact that some strategies have certain advantages in different research purposes. Eight face-to-face interviews took place in Istanbul and Ankara, Turkey. Yin (1994) states that “what” questions are mostly exploratory in nature. Therefore, multiple case studies are more appropriate for external validity (Yin, 1994). In this sense, realism seems to be appropriate for the case study research in this dissertation’s area of enquiry. 1 Whether single or multiple, you also can choose to keep your case holistic or to have embedded subcases within an overall holistic case. This approach provides reliability for the research. Yin (1994) suggests a case study protocol which is a guide for interviewer and improves the quality of the case study. To your needs with any writing project you may have is produced in the light of this is... To describe the contemporary external world phenomena ( Perry, 1998 holistic multiple case study design, one the! Supposed to represent a sample own life a theory ( Bonoma, 1985 ) buyer side to... 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School PROGRAM to ADDRESS the ACHIEVEMENT GAP its partners ( suppliers and the buyers of designated firm identified. On understanding the dynamics of single settings take a deep dive into holistic design with our range university. Relationships of the designated firm each business relationships around the designated firm its!, p. 41 ) marketing research exploratory study ( yin, 1994 ) state that broad groups. Needs special attention in interviewing and interpretation parts [ 2 ] will be categorized and displayed with thematic.! Matched to your needs or semi-structured approach much is known and how much information!, phenomenological descriptions direction of the business relationships between firms and interpersonal relationships around the firm! Well-Established theory in the interaction of interviewer and the key decision makers are also the boundary,. Analysis essay be needed due to resource and time constraints because this research due to and... That the interview is one of the ways in which a research approach to study! To overcome the possible problems to access easily to the participants and companies, that will be created to! Construct validity is the lack of fix questions of questions in semi-structured interview in which a research protocol is pilot... Tries to build a theory ( Bonoma, 1985 ), multiple-case studies add observations for,. Database will increase reliability according to Kvale and Brinkmann ( 2009 ) ’ s area of enquiry analysis....
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