(i) Stem injection by making 5 – 10 cm deep holes in the main branches with dimethoate or monocrotophos @ 0.5 ml a.i./cm circumference gave effective control of the pest. The fluid that oozes from the fruit covers the egg. Leaf- Leaf surface is smooth, edges are sharp. I. niveosparsus is recorded from peninsular India. The period from egg to adult takes about 12 – 17 days and during a flowering season, two or more broods of the pest may occur. Attention! We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling. The project has developed and distributed the pre harvest mango orchard management protocols separately for both Punjab and Sindh provinces. 4 0 obj On average, each questionnaire took 1.5 to 2.5 hours of interview with each farmer, followed by a visit to the orchard. Mango Orchard. Interviews were conducted with the selected individuals because they allowed face to face interaction between researchers and the respondents. This made probing and explanation of unclear questions possible. Eggs laying also inflicts injury to the inflorescence. Mango has been cultivated in the Indian subcontinent for thousands of years and reached East Asia between the fifth and fourth century B.C. Dasineura amaramanjarae Grover: The adult flies insert the eggs into unopened flower buds. Main vein or midrib originates from the base of the leaf. Sohail Qadir | Southern Punjab Multan, Pakistan | Fresh Fruit Supplier at Malik Mango Orchard & Farms | 471 connections | See Sohail's complete profile on Linkedin and connect (i) Three applications of carbaryl 0.1 % or phosalone 0.05 % at the fortnightly interval, or, two sprays of phosphamidon or monocrotophos @ 0.03% at 13 to 18 days interval at flowering and 2 – 3 sprays in June – July. %���� (ii) To check the carryover of the pest, collect and destroy all fallen and attacked fruits. Abro et al. (ii). If you fit this description, you can use our free essay samples to generate ideas, get inspired and figure out a title or outline for your paper. Mango maturity testing guides for Sindhri and Chaunsa S.B and Sufaid Chaunsa have been developed in Pakistan. Ascertaining various prevailing mango pests, diseases and orchard management practices in WNZ is useful to set research agendas, for planning campaign strategies and developing messages for communication to the farmers. Pruning and canopy management trials showed good results in terms of plants health, vigor and reduced tree heights with no compromise on yield reduction. 100,000/acre. Nature of damage: Eggs are laid singly either in the slits of tree trunks or in the cavities in the main branches and stem which are covered with a viscous fluid. Mango is attacked by more than 400 pests in the world. uuid:06ff8b67-870f-4330-b6d0-7f961779d2fa The experiment was conducted on leaf miner, Acrocercops syngramma (M.) infestation and its parasitoids in Saeed Khan Kanher, mango orchard, Khairpur Sindh, Pakistan, during 2015. It lays egg in loose soil within radius of 2-3 meter around the infested trees. Mango cultivation accounts for 37.61% of the total area under fruit cultivation and 22.21% of the total fruit production in the country. The infestation and the degree of damage by the borer vary considerably according to the genotypes of the folk varieties of mango plant and their different developmental period. Later this text was further translated in post-classical Latin and French language. A sample of 60 mango farmers was taken purposively from various villages in taluka Tando Adam district Sanghar Sindh Pakistan. The content of the questionnaire and the type of questions asked were agreed upon after key informant interviews. Mango fruit borer, commonly known as Red-banded caterpillar Autocharis albizonalis Hampson is thought to be recorded as a new pest, causing alarming losses to mango in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, due to the injudicious and improper application of insecticides (Ph.D. thesis submitted by SK. The ideal time to plant seed is mid-August to late September. The Pakistan Mango Research Institute (MRI) has been planting mango trees at its research area, in line with the Ultra High Density Plantation process. Sometimes sap and frass may be seen exuding from the boreholes. The maggots that hatch out from the eggs feed on stalks of stamens, anthers, ovary, etc. Unlike many other coccids, the nymphs of this pest do not remain stationary although they are sluggish. Sohail Qadir | Southern Punjab Multan, Pakistan | Fresh Fruit Supplier at Malik Mango Orchard & Farms | 471 connections | See Sohail's complete profile on Linkedin and connect Pssst… Cost of production and returns in growing mango orchard are estimated in different ways compared to annual crops. Grape orchard management for high yield Method to produce seedless grapes. In every orchard visited, 10 trees were randomly selected and surveyed for pests, and symptoms of pests and diseases. Adult flies are very conspicuous. They are ‘volunteer’ fruits growing in all parts of the country by the gift of nature and adapt to all ecological zones of the country, dry or humid, montane and lake shoreline. uuid:c6b5defe-64e7-4764-ada7-9f5461ce0f12 Biosecurity Australia Advice 2011/11 - Final non-regulated analysis: Extension of existing policy for fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. right from nursery stage to grown-up tree stage. (iii) If nymphs are observed on trees, spray 0.05% monocrotophos or phosalone. Pheromone traps such as methyl eugenol capture male flies. Seed the grass at a rate of 20 to 40 pounds per acre. (i) Raking of the soil around the base of the tree which has been infested, so that the egg-masses get exposed to the sun and heat and get killed. Amongst them, mango midges and fruit borers (Autocharis albizonalis) are of prime importance along with mango hoppers. Traps with pheromone and baits are used to monitor and to decrease the population density of fruit flies infesting the fruits in the orchard. Coupled with limitations like an irregular bearing, low yielding varieties, and poor nutrition management, this is a high incidence of insects pest and diseases that really reduces productivity. The grubs feed by tunneling through the bark of branches and cause wilting. Locusts swarm above a mango tree orchard in Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, on May 29, 2020. Fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Tephritidae: Diptera) Distribution: It is widely distributed in the Orient region from Australia and Hawaii to Pakistan, hence it is also called Oriental fruit fly. It has a time advantage," Li Wei explained. The young nymphs soon after hatching crawl about in search of some suitable food-plant on which, if found, they spend some time. The grub feeds for 3 – 6 months and pupates inside the tunnel itself. The adults which emerge from the pupae also feed on the developing seed and this may hasten the maturity of infested fruits. NameOriginDistribution Remarks 1.Mangifera indica India-BurmaSub-continentCommon mango 2.Magifera sylvestica ----Wild mango Botanical Description Mango is a medium to big evergreen tree. Mango juice, jelly, marmalade, pickles etc. Pakistani officials say an outbreak of desert locusts is … 950 the second most exported fruits [6]. There is generally poor management of mango pests and diseases among farmers in Uganda. The later instar larvae fed on the seed filling up the inner content by their excreta. It has the status of being the national fruit of India, Pakistan, Philippines and … /Outlines 5 0 R In Pakistan, 86 percent small-scale farmers whose average cultivated landholding is less than 5.0 hectares and who mostly engage in subsistence farming dominate the fresh mango value chain in Pakistan. There is only one generation in a year. The gap between potential and actual yields is very wide. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. the district, fifteen mango farmers with orchards under production with trees aged 5 years or older were randomly chosen for interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire. Percentages were based on the number of respondents rather than using the total sample. Reportedly about 100,000 ton of mangoes are exported from Pakistan annually. Our fresh and juicy mango will win your heart with its delicious taste that you find rare in other brands. The mango varieties Amlet and Mulgoa are highly susceptible to the attack of this insect. (iii) Plow around the trees during winter to expose and kill the pupae. This pest was once regarded as the minor pest in mango orchards had recently gained the major pest status due to the injudicious application of broad-spectrum insecticides in the mango orchards. (i) The damage due to nut weevil can be minimized appreciably by spraying deltamethrin 0.025 % thrice at 15 days interval commencing 45 days after fruit set. Are you interested in getting a customized paper? The maggots are yellowish and when full grown pupate in the soil. (iv) The adult flies may be trapped and killed by poison-baiting or bait-spray (20 gm Malathion, 50% wettable powder in 2 liters of water for baiting and 20 liters of water for spraying. RESPONSE AND MANAGEMENT OF HEAT STRESS IN AGRICULTURE. Mango is called the king of fruits in our country. The objective Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/management-of-mango-fruit-borer-in-pakistan/, Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email, *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content. Mango- Introduction • King of the fruit • 2nd main fruit of Pakistan • Pakistan is the 6th largest producer • Pakistan ranks 6th by export quantity among world’s mango exporting countries. 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